While this study is limited to French medieval theatre, which could have been most immediately affected by scholastic teaching, it might be worthwhile to investigate, on another occasion, whether other European dramatic literatures of the time would yield similar results. The scene of the devil's temptation in le Jeu d'Adam end of twelfth century has been given a masterly treatment by E.
Auer- bach 3. A minor shift of emphasis only is needed to analyze the figure of Diabolus, in order to highlight this first literary specimen of medieval French demonology. The Devil in Legend and Literature, 1 ; rpt. New York, , p. The role of Satan in this scene is limited to that of a tempter : to induce man to eat of the apple of knowledge and be like God.
He tempts first Adam, then Eve, each by a method well calculated to impress, and, of course, he succeeds. Skillfully he extracts from Adam information on what he Satan might call the only weak point in Paradise : the forbidden fruit. The method reserved for Eve is one of subtle flattery. Later, at an opportune moment, he reappears as a serpent, precipitating Eve's decision to present the apple to her husband. They eat — and experience a state of lucidity and heightened awareness.
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Ever since this moment in the history of civilization, critics of knowledge and progress have used the moral argument in order to buttress their opinion. Growing from the Biblical tradition, le Jeu d'Adam does show a considerable amount of inventio : the conscious attempt of its unknown author to present the Biblical story to a medieval audience in a framework well adapted to the playgoers' needs. In the course of the play, he is polarized with God, although he never claims to be a sort of anti-God. This passage 1. Aebischer, ed. That Satan acts even with divine permission is very clear from the scenic instructions at the end of the play : the procession of prophets indicates that the Fall was a necessary link in the chain of events, and that there can be no Redemption without original sin.
Satan, then, is at most a kind of Lucifer, a fallen angel, in the Jeu d'Adam. He does not characterize himself in any way. His words seem more like afterthoughts, reactions, as it were, of Adam and Eve, as they ponder the mysterious command of the Lord, not to eat of this fruit.
The figure of Satan in this piece, who has indeed amplified the role played by the serpent in Genesis, is therefore a dramatic incarnation of what could have been the first couple's own thoughts, one part of their complex personalities. Hence, from the linguistic point of view, we would hardly expect a semantic field of diabolical terminology in this early play ; and, indeed, there is none.
Almost one century later, the devil in medieval French drama has taken on much more distinct features. Polarization with God is very obvious : the devil has become a feudal overlord whose contractual agreements are comprehensible and respectable to medieval man, even though they are not acceptable from the religious point of view. Demono- graphers of the time, among them Thomas Aquinas, distinguished between implicit and explicit pact 1.
Aquinas verified only cases of implicit pact concluded according to hearsay and doubted records of explicit bondage. Naturally, from the Christian point of view, no pacts with demons should be solicited at all 2 ; but what is interesting is that there was never any doubt in. Paul, I Cor. Augustine, Be Doctrina chrisiiana, 2. Once feudalized, the devil has indeed become an Anti- God, and this dualism is very obvious in the linguistic structure of Rutebeuf's text.
The devil's conditions for service, we find, are not only receipt of Theophile's soul after death, but rather, as in true Germanic vassalage, an entire change of life, outlook, orientation. This triple ambiguity only enhances the stature of a devil who is truly Godlike in his own anthropomorphic way and therefore all the more dangerous. After this careful testing of his victim's psychological readiness, the commandments of the devil are unequivocal imperative, familiar , linked to three specific situations :.
Then, without further ado, the devil states his negative attitude towards the Christian virtues :. Frank, ed. Me metent grant duel en la pance,. From now on, the devil continues, good judment would not only be folly in itself, but would also be directed against him the devil — yet another type of folly. In the last two lines of his long admonition, the devil uses the conditional tense, in order to indicate the possibility of something that had better not happen, again working on the psychological sensitivity of his victim.
He is at least man's equal and no longer a fallen angel. In addition, he is a true feudal lord, and the reorientation which he requires is in the realm of moral values — though diametrically opposed to the Christian way of life. La la covendra remanoir. Ci avra trop hideus manoir,.
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Ce n'est pas fable. C'est lor nature ; Et lor mesons rest si obscure Con n'i verra ja soleil luire ; Ainz est uns puis toz plains d'ordure. Hell is thus a place characterized by fire and darkness ; it is hideous, inaccessible to the sun, a well of filth. The process of inversion, begun in Rutebeuf's work, is continued and detailed, as it were, in the Passion du Palatinus beginning of the fifteenth century. Its Sathanas characterizes himself as a manipulator of cardinal sins personified :.
Li ai fet sane issir a tas. L'ai fet sallir et par destraice ;. While the world is mourning and even nature is in cosmic disorder according to the gospel ,. However, Satan's joy is short-lived. Already, Enfers perso- [. Li roy, li conte et li princier,. Clers et lais de par tout le mont. Qui dedens le feu d'enfer sont. The Satan of this passion play is shown in his natural habitat, in hell.
He reinterprets the figures of Jesus and Judas, thereby continuing the tradition of contrast and inversion which had begun in the thirteenth century. Tant li jeterai fiens et boue Que je le ferai tenir quoy, Certainement ne par ma foy, S'il est si hardiz qu'il i viegne! He speaks with the certainty of having ample personnel who can back him up — by words, and, if necessary, by deeds. In later mystery plays, these imprisoned souls are blended with the cardinal sins personified ; in South Germany, the genre develops into didactic diabolical literature which, similar to the fools ' allegories, is used in satiric intention sixteenth century.
A touz jours mais user ma vie,. Thus, the devil has characterized himself as an Anti-Christ, king in exile of hell. As yet, however, we hear very little about the actual topography of hell. But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed.
Isaiah Before we see any actors, the movie opens with the prophecy of Isaiah, written years before the actual events took place. Jesus' death was not without purpose. He came to die and take the punishment for our sins so that we might have peace with God through faith in Him. The movie begins in the garden of Gethsemane as Jesus seems to be talking to Himself. There are no subtitles, but we later learn that Jesus is praying for the courage to face what He knows is about to take place. Jesus is obviously distressed. The Bible says that He was sweating profusely 1 and fell to the ground as He prayed.
Judas, one of the disciples, is then shown accepting 30 pieces of silver from the chief priests and religious rulers. Satan makes his entrance - which is not in any of the gospel accounts. However, I believe Mel Gibson is using the appearance of Satan to explain what Jesus is going through and why. One of Satan's most important lines is "Saving their souls is too costly.
The snake, of course, represents the serpent from the garden of Eden, when Satan took on the form of a snake to tempt Adam and Eve into sin. The snake is not in the gospel accounts either, but is used to demonstrate the literal fulfillment of Genesis , 6 as Jesus crushes the snake's head in resisting the words of Satan by submitting to the will of the Father.
Judas then leads the temple guards soldiers to Gethsemane, where Jesus often went with the disciples to pray.
The Sword and The Spear: God's Perfect Plan for Defeating Satan's Spear of Death
When the soldiers tried to seize Jesus, Peter gets out his sword and tries the kill one of the men, Malchus, but succeeds in only cutting off his ear. The soldiers bind Jesus and lead Him off to the Jewish religious leaders. As Jesus is led off by the soldiers, the disciples flee, 13 with Peter following the soldiers in secret. Magdalene replies with the standard answer referring to the celebration of how the Lord had led them forth from Egypt.
John burst through the door of the house telling the women that Jesus has been taken to the religious leaders. The women go with John to the trial. This scene does not appear in the gospels and no mention is made of Mary being involved until the crucifixion. The trial scene itself is pretty much right out of the gospel accounts, including almost all of the dialog.
Caiaphas, the high priest, and the council solicits testimony attempting to convict Jesus of blasphemy. He points out that He Himself had spoken openly to the people and that the leaders should question the people. Mary questions the height of the table, because, at the time, people ate from low tables while reclining on pillows.
Returning to the trial, Jesus remains silent during much of the questioning. Finally, Caiaphas, the high priest asks Jesus directly if He is the Messiah.
Peter, watching the events at the trial, is then shown denying that he knew Jesus. Jesus says that all the disciples will flee and deny Him.
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Judas, the disciple who betrayed Jesus, tries to return the money to the leaders, 30 saying that he had sinned by betraying innocent blood. He finds the rotting corpse of a camel and takes the rope from it and hangs himself. Jesus is taken to the Praetorium to Pontius Pilate, the governor of Judea. Herod is glad to see Jesus, because he thinks Jesus might perform a miracle for him.
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